What's Solvent Ink

Solvent Ink

Solvent Ink

SAM LEONG MSc MBA USA · 21th November 2023.


SAM LEONG MSc MBA · Facebook / Meta

The Comprehensive Guide to Solvent Inks: Exploring Durability, Versatility, and Vibrancy in Printing


In the dynamic world of printing, solvent inks have carved a niche for themselves, known for their durability, vivid color reproduction, and versatility. This comprehensive guide delves into the fascinating realm of solvent inks, offering insights into their composition, applications, benefits, and considerations for use. Whether you're a printing professional, an artist, or simply curious about solvent inks, this guide will equip you with a deep understanding of this vibrant technology.

When it comes to printing, there are various types of inks available in the market. One such type is solvent ink. Solvent ink is a popular choice for many industries due to its durability and versatility. In this blog post, we will dive deep into the world of solvent ink, exploring its composition, applications, benefits, and more. So, let's get started!

What is Solvent Ink?

Solvent inks are a type of ink used in digital printing, distinguished by their unique composition. They contain color pigments or dyes dissolved in a solvent, typically an organic compound. This solvent base allows the ink to adhere to a wide range of surfaces, particularly non-porous substrates like vinyl, PVC, and banner materials.

Solvent ink is a type of ink that contains solvents as its main component. These solvents are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that help dissolve the pigments and binders in the ink. The solvents used in solvent ink are typically petroleum-based, such as toluene, xylene, or mild-solvents like butyl glycol acetate which advanced economies like Singapore employs.

Superior Image Reproduction with Fine Detail and High Quality

Superior image reproduction with fine detail and high quality in solvent inks is attributed to several key factors inherent in the composition and characteristics of these inks. Understanding why solvent inks are particularly adept at achieving high-quality image reproduction involves examining their unique properties:

Vibrant and Durable Pigments:

Solvent inks contain highly concentrated, vibrant pigments that are capable of producing a wide color gamut with deep, rich colors. These pigments are also highly durable, making them resistant to fading from UV exposure, ensuring long-lasting image quality.

Excellent Adhesion on Various Substrates:

Solvent inks are known for their strong adhesion to a variety of substrates, including flexible materials like vinyl and PVC, as well as more rigid substrates. This versatility allows for clear, crisp printing on diverse surfaces, enhancing image reproduction.

Rapid Drying and Curing:

The solvents in these inks evaporate quickly upon printing, leading to faster drying and curing times. This rapid drying prevents the spreading or bleeding of ink, which helps in maintaining sharp edges and fine details in the printed images.

High Resolution and Precision:

Modern solvent ink printers are equipped with advanced print heads that can produce high-resolution images. This allows for precise placement of ink droplets, ensuring fine details are accurately reproduced.

Resistance to Smudging and Water Damage:

Once cured, solvent inks are highly resistant to smudging, water, and other environmental factors. This resilience contributes to maintaining the quality and integrity of the printed image over time.

Compatibility with High-Quality Coatings:

Solvent inks work well with various coatings and laminates, which can be applied to further enhance the vibrancy and longevity of the printed image.

Depth and Gloss:

The composition of solvent inks can create prints with excellent depth and gloss, adding to the visual appeal of the image.

Seamless Direct Printing on PVC Materials

Overall, the combination of these properties makes solvent inks an excellent choice for applications where high-quality image reproduction with fine detail is crucial, such as in outdoor signage, banners, vehicle wraps, and high-resolution graphic prints. These inks offer a balance of durability, versatility, and quality that is hard to match with other types of inks.

Understanding the Adhesion Process of Solvent Inks

Understanding the adhesion process of solvent inks involves exploring how these inks interact with various substrates to create durable, long-lasting prints. This process is crucial in ensuring that the ink adheres properly to the printing surface, resulting in high-quality, smudge-resistant images. Here’s a breakdown of this process:

Ink Composition:

Solvent inks consist of pigments or dyes for color, resins for binding, and organic solvents that carry the pigments and resins. The solvent acts as a vehicle that enables the ink to be applied smoothly onto a surface.

Application to Substrate:

When the ink is applied to a substrate (such as vinyl, plastic, or other materials), the solvent begins to evaporate. This evaporation is critical to the adhesion process.

Penetration and Softening:

As the solvent evaporates, it also partially softens or etches the surface of the substrate, especially in the case of plastics. This softening allows the resin and pigment particles to penetrate slightly into the substrate's surface.

Resin Bonding:

With the evaporation of the solvent, the resin, which is now in a more concentrated form, starts to harden. This hardening process causes the resin (and the pigment it carries) to bind strongly to the substrate's surface.

Curing and Durability:

Complete curing of the ink may take some time, depending on the type of solvent used and the environmental conditions. Once fully cured, the ink becomes resistant to physical abrasion and environmental factors like UV light and moisture.

Adhesion Quality:

The quality of adhesion depends on several factors, including the type of resin used, the nature of the substrate, and the compatibility of the ink formulation with the substrate. Some inks are formulated specifically for certain types of materials to enhance adhesion.

Environmental Conditions:

Temperature and humidity play a significant role in the adhesion process. Ideal conditions promote quicker evaporation of the solvent and proper curing of the ink.

Chemical Bonding:

In some cases, there may be chemical bonding between the ink's resin and the substrate, which further strengthens the adhesion.

In summary, the adhesion process of solvent inks is a complex interplay of chemical and physical interactions between the ink and the substrate. This process is essential for ensuring that the print is durable, resistant to environmental conditions, and maintains its visual quality over time.

Solvent Ink Composition and Types

The primary components of solvent inks are:


Provide the ink with its color, either through dyes or pigments.

CoIor Index (CI) of Black Solvent Ink

The "CI" in the context of inks typically refers to the "Color Index," which is a standardized way of identifying pigments and dyes in the industry. The Color Index uses a unique naming system to classify colors based on their chemical composition rather than their commercial names, which can vary between manufacturers.

For black solvent ink, the Color Index (CI) name is often based on carbon black pigments. The most common CI name for the pigment in black ink is "Pigment Black 7," also known by its CI number, which is CI 77266. This pigment is derived from carbon black and is widely used in various types of inks, including solvent-based inks, due to its stability, intensity, and coverage properties.

CI of Cyan Solvent Ink

The Color Index (CI) for cyan solvent ink typically falls under the category of blue pigments. The specific CI number can vary based on the exact shade of cyan and the chemical composition of the pigment used. However, a common pigment used for cyan in printing inks is Phthalocyanine Blue, which is often represented as:

CI Pigment Blue 15 (PB15):

This is a widely used pigment in cyan inks, known for its excellent lightfastness, stability, and vivid color. It can have different versions, like PB15:1, PB15:3, etc., each providing slightly different shades and properties.

CI of Magenta Solvent Ink

The Color Index (CI) for magenta solvent ink often involves pigments in the red and violet categories. A common pigment used for magenta inks in the printing industry is Quinacridone, which is known for its bright and vivid color. The typical CI name and number for this pigment are:

CI Pigment Red 122 (PR122):

This pigment is widely used for creating magenta shades in solvent-based inks due to its excellent lightfastness, transparency, and intensity.

CI of Yellow Solvent Ink

The Color Index (CI) for yellow solvent ink usually involves pigments classified under yellow categories. One of the common pigments used in yellow inks for printing is Diarylide Yellow. The typical CI name and number for this pigment are:

CI Pigment Yellow 14 (PY14):

This pigment is frequently used in yellow solvent inks for its bright hue, good opacity, and resistance to fading.

Another commonly used yellow pigment is:

CI Pigment Yellow 12 (PY12):

Also a popular choice for yellow inks, known for its good color strength and lightfastness.

Mild Solvent / Carriers In Solvent Ink:

Aid in transferring the colorant onto the substrate. 

Mild solvents in solvent inks are alternatives to the harsher solvents traditionally used in these inks. They are designed to be less aggressive, reducing the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and making them safer for indoor use and more environmentally friendly. Some of the commonly used mild solvents in solvent inks include:

Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether (EGMBE):

This is a common mild solvent used in eco-solvent inks. It has lower toxicity and less environmental impact compared to more aggressive solvents like toluene or xylene.

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (PGME):

Similar to EGMBE, PGME is used for its lower toxicity and is effective in dissolving ink pigments and resins while being less harmful.

Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (EGME):

Often used in printing inks for its effective solvency and reduced hazard profile compared to stronger solvents.

Glycol Ether Esters:

Such as propylene glycol phenyl ether, these solvents offer a good balance between effectiveness and reduced environmental impact.


Certain alcohols, like isopropanol, are milder than other solvents and are used in some eco-solvent ink formulations. They provide good solvency and relatively fast drying times.


Derived from natural sources like citrus or pine, terpenes are sometimes used in bio-solvent inks. They are more environmentally friendly but may not be as effective as synthetic solvents for some applications.

These milder solvents are particularly favored in eco-solvent inks, which are used in environments where reduced ventilation and lower VOC emissions are important, such as in indoor graphics and signage. It's important to note that while these solvents are milder, they still require proper handling and ventilation during use. The specific composition of solvents in an ink formula can vary between manufacturers and is often proprietary information.


Lend durability to the printed material. Solvent inks contain resins as a crucial component, which serve as binders to hold the pigment in place after the solvent evaporates, providing durability, adhesion, and gloss to the printed image. The choice of resin impacts the ink's overall properties, such as flexibility, chemical resistance, and outdoor durability. Common types of resins used in solvent inks include:

Acrylic Resins:

These are popular for their excellent clarity, color retention, and UV resistance. Acrylic resins help in providing good adhesion to a variety of substrates.

Vinyl Resins:

Used for their flexibility and durability, vinyl resins are particularly suitable for applications where the printed material needs to conform to curved or irregular surfaces.

Polyurethane Resins:

Known for their toughness and abrasion resistance, polyurethane resins are often used in solvent inks for outdoor applications where durability is key.

Polyester Resins:

These resins offer good chemical and mechanical resistance, making them suitable for solvent inks used in industrial and packaging applications.

Alkyd Resins:

Alkyd resins are sometimes used in solvent inks for their gloss and adherence properties. They are particularly useful in applications requiring a high-quality finish.

Epoxy Resins:

Epoxy resins are known for their strong adhesion and chemical resistance, although they are less commonly used in standard solvent inks due to their rigidity.

Cellulose Resins:

Cellulose-based resins, such as nitrocellulose, are used for their fast-drying properties and are commonly found in inks for fast printing processes.

The choice of resin is tailored to the specific requirements of the printing application, such as flexibility, durability, gloss level, and resistance to environmental factors like UV light, moisture, and chemicals. The resin content in the ink formulation also influences the viscosity and drying speed of the ink. Manufacturers often use a blend of different resins to optimize the performance characteristics of the ink for specific applications.


Enhance properties like drying time and glossiness.

Solvent Ink Categories

Solvent inks are broadly categorized into:

Hard Solvent Inks:

High in VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), offering exceptional durability.

Mild / Eco-Solvent Inks:

Contain lower VOC levels, balancing performance with environmental friendliness.

How Does Solvent Ink Work?

Solvent ink works by dissolving the pigments and binders, allowing them to be sprayed onto the printing surface. The solvents in the ink evaporate quickly, leaving behind a layer of vibrant and durable ink. This process is known as solvent evaporation.

Applications of Solvent Ink

Solvent inks are favored for various applications due to their robustness and ability to print on multiple substrates. Solvent ink finds its applications in a wide range of industries, including:

Outdoor Signage:

Solvent ink is highly resistant to UV rays and weather conditions, making it ideal for outdoor signage that needs to withstand harsh environments. Their UV resistance and waterproof properties make them ideal for billboards, banners, and vehicle wraps.

Vehicle Wraps:

The durability and vibrant colors of solvent ink make it a popular choice for vehicle wraps and graphics.

Banners and Posters:

Solvent ink provides excellent adhesion to various substrates, making it suitable for printing banners and posters.

Labels and Packaging:

Solvent ink offers excellent resistance to water, chemicals, and abrasion, making it ideal for printing labels and packaging materials. Applied in product labeling where durability is paramount.

Textile Printing:

Used in printing on fabrics for flags and banners.

The Advantage and Benefits of Solvent Ink

Solvent ink offers several advantages over other types of inks:


Solvent ink is highly resistant to fading, scratching, and weather conditions, ensuring long-lasting prints. Excellent resistant to UV light, water, and abrasion.


Solvent ink can be used on a wide range of substrates, including vinyl, fabric, paper, and more. Suitable for a variety of substrates, especially non-porous materials.

Color Vibrancy:

Solvent ink produces vibrant and saturated colors, making the prints visually appealing. Produce vibrant, high-resolution images.

Fast Drying:

Solvent ink dries quickly, allowing for faster production and turnaround times.


Offer long-term durability, reducing the need for frequent replacements.

Solvent Ink Prices

The prices of solvent inks can vary widely depending on several factors including brand, quality, type (such as standard solvent ink or eco-solvent ink), quantity, and the specific application it is intended for. As of my last update in April 2023, here's a general idea of what you might expect:

Standard Solvent Inks:

These are typically used for outdoor signage and banners. Prices can range from $40 to $100 per liter, depending on the quality and brand.

Eco-Solvent Inks:

These are a bit more expensive due to their environmentally friendly formulation. Prices for eco-solvent inks can range from $60 to $120 per liter.

Specialized Solvent Inks:

Inks designed for specific applications, like high-end graphics or industrial use, might be priced higher. These could range from $100 to $200 per liter or more, depending on the specialization.

Bulk Purchases:

Buying in bulk can often reduce the cost per liter. Large-scale printers and businesses tend to benefit from bulk pricing.

Third-Party or Compatible Inks:

These are generally cheaper alternatives to the original manufacturer's inks. They can range from 30% to 60% cheaper but might come with trade-offs in terms of quality or compatibility.

Cartridges vs. Bulk Ink Systems:

Prices also differ if you're buying cartridges for smaller printers versus bulk ink for large format printers. Cartridges can often be more expensive per liter compared to bulk ink systems.

Remember, these are general estimates, and prices can fluctuate based on market conditions, supplier, and geographic location. It's always a good idea to research and compare prices from different suppliers, and also to consider the compatibility and quality of the ink with your specific printer and printing needs.

Green Guard Gold Certification Solvent Ink

Green Guard Gold solvent ink refers to a type of solvent-based ink that meets the stringent criteria set by the UL Environment's GREENGUARD Gold certification. This certification is particularly focused on chemical emissions standards, ensuring that products are acceptable for use in environments like schools and healthcare facilities where sensitive individuals (such as children and the sick) might be exposed. Here are some key aspects of Green Guard Gold solvent inks:

Low VOC Emissions:

These inks are formulated to emit lower levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are chemicals that can evaporate into the air under normal room temperatures and potentially cause health problems.

Safer Indoor Air Quality:

By meeting the GREENGUARD Gold standards, these inks contribute to safer indoor air quality, making them a preferred choice for indoor applications where air quality is a concern.

Reduced Chemical Exposure:

The certification ensures that the inks have reduced levels of chemicals like formaldehyde and phthalates, which are known to be harmful in certain concentrations.

Compliance with Health-Based Criteria:

Products with GREENGUARD Gold certification must meet rigorous health-based criteria, including over 360 volatile organic compound (VOC) emission standards.

Use in Sensitive Environments:

Because of their lower chemical emissions, Green Guard Gold solvent inks are often used in products designed for use in environments frequented by sensitive groups, such as schools, healthcare facilities, and residential areas.

Quality and Performance:

Despite the focus on lower chemical emissions, these inks do not compromise on quality and performance. They still offer high-quality printing with durability, color vibrancy, and compatibility with a range of substrates.

Eco-Friendly Focus:

This certification is part of a broader trend towards more environmentally friendly printing practices, appealing to consumers and businesses looking to reduce their ecological footprint.

In summary, Green Guard Gold solvent inks represent a step towards more environmentally responsible printing solutions, balancing the need for high-quality, durable printing with the imperative to maintain good indoor air quality and reduce harmful chemical emissions.

Solvent Ink Environmental and Health Considerations

While solvent inks are highly effective, they pose environmental and health concerns due to VOC emissions. It's crucial to use them in well-ventilated areas and adhere to safety guidelines. The development of eco-solvent and mild-solvent inks are a step towards mitigating these concerns, offering a more environmentally friendly option.

Best Practices, Precautions, and Safety Measures

While solvent ink offers numerous benefits, it is essential to take proper precautions when working with it:

Proper Ventilation:

Solvent ink emits volatile fumes, so it is crucial to work in a well-ventilated area or use proper ventilation systems. Ensure adequate airflow in the printing area.

Protective Gear:

Wear protective gloves, goggles, and masks to avoid direct contact with the ink and inhalation of fumes. Wear protective gear and follow safety protocols.


Store solvent ink in a cool and dry place, away from direct sunlight and heat sources.


Follow proper disposal guidelines for solvent ink to prevent environmental contamination.

Regular Maintenance:

Keep the printing equipment clean to avoid clogging and ensure optimal performance.

Quality Substrates:

Use compatible substrates for best results.

Your Guide to Choosing the Right Solvent Ink

"Your Guide to Choosing the Right Solvent Ink" is about providing essential information and tips to help you make an informed decision when selecting solvent inks for your printing needs. This guide would cover several key aspects:

Understanding Solvent Ink Types:

There are different types of solvent inks available, including eco-solvent, mild-solvent, and true or full-solvent inks. Each type has its own set of characteristics, advantages, and suitable applications.

Consider the Substrate Compatibility:

Different solvent inks adhere better to certain materials. It's crucial to choose an ink that is compatible with the substrates you intend to print on, such as vinyl, PVC, canvas, or other materials.

Evaluate Color Vibrancy and Gamut:

The quality of color reproduction is vital. Look for inks that offer a wide color gamut and vibrant colors, especially if you're working on high-quality graphics or images that require accurate color representation.

Check for Durability and Outdoor Resistance:

If your prints will be exposed to outdoor conditions, choose solvent inks known for their durability and resistance to environmental factors like UV rays, rain, and extreme temperatures.

Assess Drying and Curing Times:

Depending on your production needs, consider the drying and curing times of the ink. Faster drying inks can increase throughput but may require specific handling or equipment.

Examine Ink Longevity and Fade Resistance:

For prints that need to last a long time without fading, select inks with high levels of fade resistance.

Review Environmental and Health Considerations:

If you're concerned about environmental and health impacts, look for eco-solvent inks or those with Green Guard Gold certification that emit lower levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Compatibility with Your Printer:

Ensure the ink is compatible with your specific printer model and print heads to avoid damage and ensure optimal performance.


Balance the cost of the ink with its quality and longevity. Sometimes, investing in higher-quality ink can be more cost-effective in the long run due to its durability and reduced need for reprints.

Brand and Supplier Reliability:

Choose inks from reputable brands and suppliers that offer good customer support, consistent quality, and supply reliability.

By considering these factors, you can choose the right solvent ink that meets your specific printing requirements, budget, and quality expectations. This guide is meant to simplify the selection process and ensure that your investment in solvent ink yields the best possible results for your printing projects.

Comparing Solvent Inks with Other Inks

Solvent inks stand out when compared to aqueous, UV-curable, and latex inks in terms of substrate compatibility, durability, and color intensity. However, each type has its own set of advantages and suitable applications.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

Common issues with solvent inks include nozzle clogging, color inconsistency, and substrate compatibility. Regular maintenance, proper storage, and using high-quality inks can mitigate these problems.

Future of Solvent Inks

The solvent ink industry is evolving, with a focus on reducing environmental impact and enhancing performance. Innovations are geared towards more eco-friendly formulations and improved printing technologies.

In Conclusion

Solvent ink is a versatile and durable printing solution that finds its applications in various industries. Its ability to withstand outdoor conditions, vibrant color output, and fast-drying properties make it a popular choice for signage, vehicle wraps, labels, and more. However, it is important to handle solvent ink with caution and follow safety measures to ensure a safe working environment. So, whether you are a printing professional or someone interested in the world of inks, solvent ink is definitely worth exploring!

Solvent Ink Frequently Asked Qestions

Are solvent inks waterproof?

Yes, solvent inks are highly water-resistant, making them ideal for outdoor applications.

Can solvent inks be used on all types of printers?

They require specific printers designed for solvent-based inks.

How do eco-solvent inks differ from regular solvent inks?

Eco-solvent inks have lower VOC content and are less hazardous, making them more environmentally friendly.

Where are solvent inks made?

Solvent inks are made at SAMINK in Singapore.

Phone: +65 63333302