ECO★SAM™ W.H.O. COVID-19 Disinfectant
Singapore National Environment Agency Guidelines for Surface Disinfection of COVID-19 Virus 0.5% Calcium Hypochlorite.
d Sattar SA, Springthorpe VS, Karim Y, Loro P. (1989). Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses. Epidemiol. Infect. 102:493-505; Tested against coronavirus 229E.
e Lai, M. Y. Y., Cheng, P. K. C., & Lim, W. W. L. (2005). Survival of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(7), e67-e71.
W.H.O. PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANING & DISINFECTION
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus). The COVID-19 virus is transmitted mainly through close physical contact and respiratory droplets, while the airborne transmission is possible during aerosol-generating medical procedures. Disinfectant aims to reduce any role that fomites might play in the transmission of COVID-19 in both health-care and non-healthcare settings.
Environmental surfaces in health-care settings include furniture and other fixed items inside and outside of patient rooms and bathrooms, such as tables, chairs, walls, light switches and computer peripherals, electronic equipment, sinks, toilets as well as the surfaces of non-critical medical equipment, such as blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, wheelchairs, and incubators. In non-healthcare settings, environmental surfaces include sinks and toilets, electronics (touch screens and controls), furniture, and other fixed items, such as countertops, stairway rails, floors, and walls.
Environmental closed settings, such as households, health facilities (gyms, spas), assisted living (homes for the aged), and residential institution environments (dormitories, prisons). Community settings like publicly accessible buildings (schools, shopping malls, restaurants, movies), faith-based community centers (churches, temples. mosques), markets, transportation (cruise ships, taxi, buses, airplanes), and business settings (workplaces).
Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus with a fragile outer lipid envelope that makes it more susceptible to disinfectants compared to non-enveloped viruses such as rotavirus, norovirus, and poliovirus. Studies have evaluated the persistence of the COVID-19 virus on different surfaces. One study found that the COVID-19 virus remained viable up to 1 day on cloth and wood, up to 2 days on glass, 4 days on stainless steel and plastic, and up to 7 days on the outer layer of a medical mask. Another study found that the COVID-19 virus survived 4 hours on copper, 24 hours on cardboard, and up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel.
PRODUCTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANING & DISINFECTION
ECO★SAM™ Disinfectant is an evidenced-based cleaning solution for COVID-19 contaminated environmental surfaces. It is the fastest, easiest, and Ready-To-Use solution right out of the box.
Hypochlorite is active as the antimicrobial compound. It displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and is effective against several common pathogens at various concentrations. For example, it is effective against rotavirus and some highly resistant pathogens in the health-care setting such as C. Auris and C. Difficile.
ECO★SAM™ Disinfectant will inactivate the vast majority of pathogens like COVID-19 that may be present in a health-care setting like blood and body fluids spills larger than 10mL.
Disinfectants will decay rapidly in solutions within 30-days depending on the source of supply and environmental conditions, for example, ambient temperature or UV exposure. The solution should be stored in an opaque box, in a well-ventilated, covered area that is not exposed to direct sunlight.
ECO★SAM™ Disinfectant solutions are most stable at high pH (>9) but the disinfectant properties of chlorine are stronger at lower pH (<8). Solutions of 0.5% and 0.05% chlorine have been shown to be stable for more than 30 days at temperatures of 25-35°C when the pH is above 9. However, chlorine solutions at lower pH have much shorter shelf lives. Thus, ideally, chlorine solutions should be freshly prepared every day. If this is not possible and the chlorine solution must be used for several days, they should be tested daily to ensure that the chlorine concentration is maintained. Several tests can be used to gauge chlorine strength, and these include chemical titration, chemical spectrometry or colorimetry, color wheels, and test strips, in order of decreasing accuracy.
HEALTHCARE SETTING ENVIRONMENT
Table: Health-care setting: Recommended frequency of cleaning of environmental surfaces, according to the patient areas with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients.
|Patient area||Frequency||Additional guidance|
|Screening/triage area||At least twice daily||• Focus on high-touch surfaces, then floors (last)|
|Inpatient rooms/cohort – occupied||At least twice daily, preferably three times daily, in particular for high-touch surfaces||• Focus on high-touch surfaces, starting with shared/common surfaces, then move to each patient bed; use new cloth for each bed if possible; then floors (last)|
|Inpatient rooms – unoccupied (terminal cleaning)||Upon discharge/transfer||Low-touch surfaces, high-touch surfaces, floors (in that order); waste and linens removed, bed thoroughly cleaned and disinfected|
|Outpatient/ambulatory care rooms||After each patient visit (in particular for high-touch surfaces) and at least once daily terminal clean||• High-touch surfaces to be disinfected after each patient visit
• Once-daily low-touch surfaces, high-touch surfaces, floors (in that order); waste and linens removed, examination bed thoroughly cleaned and disinfected
|Hallways/corridors||At least twice daily||• High-touch surfaces including railings and equipment in hallways, then floors (last)|
|Patient bathrooms/ toilets||Private patient room toilet: at least twice daily
Shared toilets: at least three times daily
|• High-touch surfaces, including door handles, light switches, counters, faucets, then sink bowls, then toilets and finally floor (in that order)
• Avoid sharing toilets between staff and patients
WhatsApp Sam Leong MSc MBA 9011-2282.